Primary sources

Anon., The Angel Illustrated Pocket Keepsake and Book of Christmas Amusements for 1877 (London, Simpkins, [1876])

———, The Arraignment, Conviction, and Imprisoning of Christmas: On St. Thomas day last . . . (1645), reprinted in Schmauch, Walter W., The Tryal of Old Father Christmas (Chicago, Walter M. Hill, 1937)

———, The Christmas Book: Christmas in Olden Time, its Customs and Their Origin (London, James Pattie, 1859)

———, A Christmas Frolick, or, Mirth for the Holidays (London, G. Allen, 1775)

———, ‘Christmas Lamentation for the losse of his Acquaintance, showing how he is forst to leaue the Country, and come to London’, songsheet (‘Printed at London for E.C. dwelling in the Old-Bayly’, [1635])

———, The Christmas Log, A Song of the Olden Time; and Choice Christmas Nuts . . . (Kingston, G. Phillipson, [?c.1860])

———, The Christmas Tree: A Present from Germany (London, Darton & Clark, [1844])

———, ‘Custom Observed on the Eve of St Nicholas’, Gentleman’s Magazine, vol. 10, May 1827, pp. 407–8

———, A Present from Germany, or, The Christmas-Tree, trs. Emily Perry (London, Charles Fox, 1840)

———, Round About Our Coal-Fire, or, Christmas Entertainments (London, J. Roberts, [?1730])

———, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, trs. Simon Armitage (London, Faber and Faber, 2007)

———, A Week at Christmas (Wellington, Shrops., F. Houlston, 1829)

Adams, W. H. Davenport, Round About Our Coal Fire. A Book of New Games, Original and Selected . . . (London, James Blackwood, [1861])

Ashton, John, England 100 Years Ago, or, The Dawn of the XIXth Century: A Social Sketch of the Times (London, T. Fisher Unwin, 1900)

———, A Righte Merrie Christmasse! The Story of Christ-tide (London, Leadenhall Press, [1894])

Audsley, W. and G., The Floral Decoration of Churches at Christmas (London, Zorn & Co., 1868)

Baker, Ernest, A Victorian Schoolboy in London: The Diary of Ernest Baker, 1881–82, ed. David Rodgers (London, Ge rye Museum, [1989])

Baum, L. Frank, The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus (London, B.F. Stevens and Brown, [1902])

Berquin, M[onsieur], The Children’s Friend (Newburyport, Boston, John Mycall, 1789); [Arnaud]

Berquin, L’Ami des Enfants ([1782], Paris, Didier et Cie., 1857)

Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, ‘Christmas Chit-chat’, December 1821, pp. 493–500

———, ‘Christmas Gifts’, January 1826, pp. 80–90; ibid., December 1826, pp. 893–903

———, ‘Minced-Pie; A Christmas Carol’, February 1828, pp. 252–5

Blunden, Edmund, et al., The Legacy of England (London, B. T. Batsford, 1935)

Bourne, George, William Smith, Potter and Farmer, 1790–1858 (London, Chatto & Windus, 1920)

Brace, Charles Loring, Home Life in Germany (London, Richard Bentley, 1853)

Brady, John, Clavis Calendaria; or, A Compendious Analysis of the Calendar (London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1812–13)

Brand, John, Observations on Popular Antiquities, Including the Whole of Mr. Bourne’s Antiquitates Vulgares  (Newcastle, J. Johnson, 1777)

Breck, Samuel, Recollections of Samuel Breck, with Passages from His Note-Books (1771–1862), ed. H. E. Scudder (Philadelphia, Porter & Coates, 1877)

[Breton, Nicholas], Fantasticks: Serving for a Perpetuall Prognostication (London, Francis Williams, 1626)

British Library broadside collections: shelfmark 1889.b.10/3(13); 1875.d.8

Browne, Maggie [as Margaret Hamer Andrews], Chats about Germany (London, cassell & Co., [1884])

Byrd, William, Another Secret Diary of William Byrd of Westover, 1739–1741, ed. Maude H. Woodfin, trs. Marion Tinling (Richmond, VA, The Dietz Press, 1942)

———, The Secret Diary of William Byrd of Westover, 1709–1712, eds. Louis B. Wright and Marion Tinling (Richmond, VA, The Dietz Press, 1941)

[Campbell, Thomas], ‘Reflections on Plum-Pudding, by a Poor Gentleman’, New Monthly Magazine, January 1822, pp. 88–9

Cameron, Clare, Rustle of Spring: An Edwardian Childhood in London’s East End ([1927], London, Skilton and Shaw, 1979)

Carey, Peter, Oscar and Lucinda (London, Faber and Faber, 1997)

Carter, Landon, The Diary of Colonel Landon Carter, 1752–1778, ed. Jack P. Greene (Charlottesville, University Press of Virginia, 1965)

[Cather, Willa, as] Elizabeth L. Seymour, ‘The Burglar’s Christmas’, The Home Monthly, vol. 6, December 1896, pp. 8–10

[Chamberlain, Robert, as] ‘A.S., Gent.’, The Booke of Bulls, Baited with two Centuries of bold Jests, and nimble-Lies (London, Daniel Freere, 1636)

Chesterton, G. K., The Spirit of Christmas (London, Xanadu, 1984)

Clare, John, The Shepherd’s Calendar; with Village Stories, and Other Poems (London, John Taylor, 1827)

Clarke, Marcus, et al., The Australian Christmas Box (Melbourne, Cameron, Laing & Co., [?1879])

[Cleland, John], ‘On the Origin of the Musical Waits at Christmas’ (London, L. Davis and C. Reymers, 1766)

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, ‘Christmas Within Doors, in the North of Germany’, in The Friend; A Series of Essays (London, Gale and Curtis, 1812), pp. 300–301

Cook, Captain James, The Journals of Captain James Cook on His Voyages of Discovery, ed. J. C. Beaglehole (Woodbridge, Boydell, 1999)

Corelli, Marie, A Christmas Greeting (New York, Dodd, Mead & Co., 1902)

Crowther, Janice E., and Peter A. Crowther, eds., The Diary of Robert Sharp of South Cave: Life in a Yorkshire Village, 1812–37 (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1997)

Davenant, William [as D’avenant], The Witts: A Comedie (London, Richard Meighen, 1636)

Davis, Norman, ed., Paston Letters (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1958)

Dickens, Charles, ‘A Christmas Dinner’, in Sketches by Boz, ed. Dennis Walder ([1836–9], Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1995)

———, Great Expectations, ed. Charlotte Mitchell ([1860–61], Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1996)

———, The Mystery of Edwin Drood, ed. Arthur Cox ([1870], Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1993)

———, The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, ed. Mark Wormald ([1836–7], Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1999)

Dix, W[illiam Chatterton], Christmas Customs & Christmas Carols [London, [n. p.], [c.1870]

Dorman, [ Joseph], Sir Roger de Coverly, or, The Merry Christmas: A Dramatic Entertainment of Two Acts (Dublin, George Faulkner, 1740)

Drinker, Elizabeth, The Diary of Elizabeth Drinker, ed. Elaine Forman Crane, with Sarah Blank Dine, Alison Duncan Hirsch, Arthur Scherr, Anita J. Rapone (Boston, Northeastern University Press, 1991)

Du y, E. M., ‘Two Christmas Eves’, New Monthly Magazine, January 1869, pp. 19–33

Easty, John, Memorandum of the Transactions of a Voyage from England to Botany Bay, 1787–1793 (Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1965) English Broadside Ballads online:

Examiner, The, ‘Christmas’, 27 December 1818, p. 818

———, ‘Christmas’, 23 December 1821, pp. 814–15

———, ‘Holiday Revivals’, 4 January 1818, pp. 2–3

Fithian, Philip Vickers, Journal and Letters of Philip Vickers Fithian, 1773–4: A Plantation Tutor of the Old Dominion, ed. Hunter Dickinson Farish (Williamsburg, Colonial Williamsburg Inc., 1957)

Fletcher, Calvin, The Diary of Calvin Fletcher, eds. Gayle Thornbrough, Dorothy L. Riker, Paula Corpuz (Indianapolis, Indiana Historical Society, 1972–78)

Flohr, Mme Apolline, The German Christmas-Eve . . . A Picture of Home Life in Germany (London, G. C. Caines, [1847])

Forster, George, A Voyage Round the World (London, B. White, 1777) [facsimile edition, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, 1981]

‘Frisky Funnyman’, Fun for the Kitchen: or, A Dish of All Sorts . . . to make joyful Hearts (London, J. Wren, 1765)

Gass, Patrick, A Journal of the Voyages and Travels of a Corps of Discovery, Under the Command of Capt. Lewis and Capt. Clarke . . . from the Mouth of the River Missouri . . . to the Pacific Ocean . . . (Pittsburgh, David M’Keehan, 1807)

[Glasse, Hannah], ‘by a Lady’, The Art of Cookery, Made Plain and Easy . . . (3rd ed., Dublin, E. and J. Exshaw, 1748)

Gosse, Edmund, Father and Son: A Study of Two Temperaments (London, William Heinemann, 1907)

Gregory, Isabella Augusta, Lady, Lady Gregory’s Diaries: 1892–1902, ed. James Pethica (Gerrards Cross, Bucks, Colin Smythe, 1996)

Greville, Charles Cavendish Fulke, The Greville Memoirs, 1814–1860, ed. Lytton Strachey and Roger Fulford (London, Macmillan, 1938)

———, Leaves from the Diary of Henry Greville, ed. Viscountess Enfield [later Countess of Strafford] (London, Smith, Elder & Co., 1883–1905)

Grossmith, George and Weedon, The Diary of a Nobody ([1892], Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1965)

[Gwinnett, Richard], The Country ’Squire, or, A Christmas Gambol (London, J. Wilford, 1732)

Hale, Edward E., If, Yes, and Perhaps: Four Possibilities and Six Exaggerations . . . (Boston, Ticknor and Fields, 1868), contains ‘Christmas Waits in Boston’, first published in the Boston Daily Advertiser ‘last year’ [1867?]

Harris, Joel Chandler, Balaam and His Master and Other Sketches and Stories (Boston, Houghton, Mi in, 1891)

———, On the Plantation (New York, D. Appleton, 1892) Harrison, Sarah, The House-keeper’s Pocket-book, and Compleat

Family Cook ([1733, 1st ed.], 6th ed., London, [n.p.], [?1755]) Harrison, William Henry, The Humourist, A Companion for the

Christmas Fireside (London, R. Ackermann, 1831–2) Hart, Bret, ‘How Santa Claus Came to Simpson’s Bar’

(London, St Hugh’s, [1949])
Henderson, William, Notes on the Folk-Lore of the Northern Counties of England and the Borders ([1866], London, W. Satchell, Peyton and Co., 1879)

Herrick, Robert, The Complete Poetry of Robert Herrick, ed. Tom Cain and Ruth Connolly (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013)

Hervey, Thomas K., The Book of Christmas (London, William Spooner, 1837)

Holland, William, Paupers and Pig Killers: The Diary of William Holland, a Somerset Parson, 1799–1818, ed. Jack Ayres (Gloucester, Alan Sutton, 1984)

Hone, William, The Every-Day Book, or, The Guide to the Year . . . (London, William Tegg, 1827)

———, Ibid. (2 vols., London, Hunt and Clarke, 1826)

Hudson, Derek, Munby: Man of Two Worlds: The Life and Diaries of Arthur J. Munby, 1828–1910 (London, John Murray, 1972)

Hunt, Leigh, Examiner, ‘Christmas Enjoyments’, 20 December 1818; ‘An English Christmas in 1819’, 26 December 1819

———, Leigh Hunt’s London Journal (2 vols., London, Charles Knight, 1834–5): ‘Christmas Eve and Christmas Day’, 24 December 1834; ‘New Years’ [sic] Day. New Year’s Gifts. The Wassail-Bowl’, 31 December 1834; ‘Twelfth Night’, 7 January 1835; ‘Hints for Table Talk, no. IV’, 7 January 1835

———, Leigh Hunt’s Political and Occasional Essays, ed. Lawrence Huston Houtchens and Carolyn Washburn Houtchens (New York, Columbia University Press, 1962)

———, Monthly Repository: ‘The Inexhaustibility of the Subject of Christmas’, December 1837

———, New Monthly Magazine, ‘Christmas: A Song for Good Fellows, Young and Old’, December 1836

Idler, The, ‘Should Christmas be Abolished?’, August 1894– January 1895, pp. 629–46

[Irving, Washington, as] ‘Diedrich Knickerbocker’, A History of New York, from the Beginning of the World . . . (London, Thomas Tegg, 1824)

Irving, Washington, Old Christmas: From the Sketch Book of Washington Irving (London, Macmillan & Co., 1876)

———, The Sketch Book of Geo rey Crayon, Esq. ([1819], Leipzig, Bernhard Tauchnitz, [c.1855])

Josselin, Ralph, The Diary of Ralph Josselin, 1616–1683, ed. Alan Macfarlane (London, The British Academy, 1976)

King, Josiah, The Examination and Tryal of Father Christmas; Together with his Clearing by the JURY . . . (London, Charles Brome, 1686; [facsimile, Boston, G.K. Hall, 1971])

Larkin, Philip, Selected Letters of Philip Larkin, 1940–1985, ed. Anthony Thwaite (London, Faber and Faber, 1992)

Lewis, D. B. Wyndham, and G. C. Heseltine, eds., A Christmas Book: An Anthology for Moderns (London, J. M. Dent, 1928)

Lewis, Meriwether, and William Clark, The Journals of Lewis and Clark, ed. Frank Bergon (New York, Viking, 1989)

‘Lovefun, A. G.’, A New Cure for the Spleen: Being, A Collection of Advertisements . . . Intended for the Amusement of the Fire Side . . . To which are added, Christmas-Day Entertainment . . . (London, for the author, 1778)

Macaulay, Thomas Babington, The Letters of Thomas Babington

Macaulay, ed. Thomas Pinney (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1974–7)

Machyn, Henry, The Diary of Henry Machyn, Citizen and Merchant-Taylor of London, from A.D. 1550 to A.D. 1563, ed. John Gough Nichols (London, Camden Society, 1848)

Mann, Thomas, Buddenbrooks: The Decline of a Family, trs. H. T. Lowe-Porter (Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1957)

Mather, Increase, ‘Testimony against prophane customs, namely health drinking, dicing, cards, Christmas-keeping, New Year’s gifts . . .’, ed. William Peden ([1687], Charlottesville, University of Virginia Press, 1953)

May, Robert, The Accomplisht Cook, or, The Art and Mystery of Cookery, foreword, introduction and glossary by Alan Davison, Marcus Bell, Tom Jaine ([1685], London, Prospect, 2012)

May, Robert L., Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer ([1939], London, Simon and Schuster, 2014)

Middleton, Thomas, The Collected Works, eds. Gary Taylor, John Lavagnino, et al. (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 2007)

Miles, Clement A., Christmas in Ritual and Tradition, Christian and Pagan (London, T. Fisher Unwin, 1912)

Miles, Constance, Mrs Miles’s Diary: The Wartime Journal of a Housewife on the Home Front, ed. A. C. Partington (London, Simon & Schuster, 2013)

[Misson, M.], M. Misson’s Memoirs and Observations in his Travels over England . . . (London, D. Browne, et al., 1719)

Moore, Clement C., A Visit from St Nicholas (New York, Henry M. Onderdonk, 1848)

[Morgan, T. C.], ‘A Country Christmas – Agreeability’, New Monthly Magazine, January 1823, pp. 168–72

———, ‘Revival of Christmas Merry-makings’, New Monthly Magazine, January 1825, pp. 190–93

Moulton, Gary E., ed., The Journals of the Lewis & Clark Expedition (Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1986)

Murray, W. H. H., Holiday Tales: Christmas in the Adirondacks (Springfield, [n.p.], 1897)

Nabbes, Thomas, The Springs Glorie Vindicating Love (London, Charles Greene, 1638)

Nast, Thomas, Thomas Nast’s Christmas Drawings for the Human Race (London, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington, 1890)

[Newcomb, George], History of the Christmas Festival, the New Year, and Their Peculiar Customs (Westminster, G. Newcomb, 1843)

New Monthly Magazine, ‘Christmas-Keeping’, January 1821, pp. 609–14

———, ‘The Family Journal – No. XI: Keeping Christmas’, January 1825, pp. 514–18

———, ‘How We Made the Christmas Pudding’, December 1870, pp. 696–701

———, ‘Old Christmas Times at the Temple’, January 1822, pp. 10–12

———, ‘On the Origin of the Celebration of Christmas’, January 1821, pp. 105–8

Papendiek, Charlotte, The Memoirs of Charlotte Papendiek (1765–1840), ed. Michael Kassler, in Memoirs of the Court of George III, eds. Michael Kassler, Lorna J. Clark, Alain Herhervé (London, Pickering and Chatto, 2015)

[Paulding, James Kirke], The Book of Saint Nicholas, ‘translated from the original Dutch of Dominie Nicholas Ægidius Oudenarde’ (New York, Harper & Brothers, 1836)

Pepys, Samuel, The Diary of Samuel Pepys, eds. Robert Latham and William Matthews (London, Bell & Hyman, 1970–76)

Pfalz, Liselotte von der [Elisabeth Charlotte, Duchesse d’Orléans], A Woman’s Life in the Court of the Sun King: Letters of Liselotte von der Pfalz, 1652–1722, trs. Elborg Forster (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins, 1984)

Pintard, John, Letters from John Pintard to His Daughter Eliza Noel

Pintard Davidson, 1816–1833 (4 vols., New York, New-York Historical Society, 1940–41)

Platts, Rev. John, The Manners and Customs of All Nations . . . (London, Henry Fisher, Son, and Co., [1827])

[Poole, John], ‘Christmas Festivities at Dribble Hall’, New Monthly Magazine, May 1836, pp. 76–87

Priestley, J. B., ‘A Note on Father Christmas’, Saturday Review, 24 December 1927, pp. 882–3

Randolph, Mary, The Virginia Housewife, or, Methodical Cook ([1860], New York, Dover, 1993)

Ray, J., A Collection of English Proverbs . . . (Cambridge, W. Morden, 1678) and ibid. (London, J. Torbuck, 1737)

Revel, Rachel, Winter Evening Pastimes, or, The Merry-Maker’s Companion (London, A. Mesnard, 1825)

Saki, [pseud. of Hector Hugo Munro], The Complete Short Stories (Harmondsworth, Penguin, 2000)

Salinger, J. D., The Catcher in the Rye ([1951], Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1977)

Sandys, William, Christmastide: Its History, Festivities, and Carols (London, John Russell Smith, [1852])

Scott, James, Remarks on a Passage to Botany Bay, 1787–1792: A First Fleet Journal (Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1963)

Scott, Walter, Marmion ([1808], Edinburgh, Paterson, [c.1830])

Scott, Rev. William, ‘O Tempora! O Mores! Or, The Best New-Year’s Gift for a Prime Minister’ (London, J. Wilkie, [1774]) Sedaris, David, Barrel Fever: Stories and Essays (London, Indigo, 1997)

Selden, John, Table-Talk: Being the Discourses of John Selden, Esq . . . (London, E. Smith, 1689)

Shepard, E. H., Drawn from Memory and Drawn from Life: The Autobiography of Ernest H. Shepard (London, Methuen, 1986)

[Shoberl, Frederic], ‘Christmas’, New Monthly Magazine, December 1839, pp. 447–61

Soligny, Victoire, Count de, [pseud. of Peter George Patmore], Letters on England (London, Henry Colburn, 1823)

[Smith, Eliza, as] ‘E—S—’, The Compleat Housewife, or, Accomplished Gentlewoman’s Companion (London, J. Pemberton, 1728)

Smith, William James, The Grenville Papers: Being the Correspondence of Richard Grenville, Earl Temple, and the Right Hon. George Grenville . . . (London, John Murray, 1852)

Stanley, Liz, ed., The Diaries of Hannah Cullwick, Victorian Maidservant (London, Virago, 1984)

Stevenson, M[atthew], The Twelve Moneths, or, A pleasant and profitable discourse of every action, whether of Labour or Recreation, proper to each particular Moneth . . . (London, Thomas Jenner, 1661)

Stow, John, A Survey of London, written in the year 1598, ed. William J. Thoms ([1603], London, Chatto & Windus, 1876)

Strutt, Joseph, The Sports and Pastimes of the People of England ([1801], Bath, Firecrest, 1969)

Stubbes, Philip, The Anatomie of Abuses, ed. Margaret Jane Kidnie, Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, vol. 245 ([1583], Tempe, AZ, Renaissance English Text Society, 2002)

Studio, The, ‘Christmas Cards and their Chief Designers’, Extra winter number, 1894–5

Taylor, John, Christmas In & Out; or, Our Lord and Saviour Christs Birth-day (London, ‘at the Charge of the Authour’, 1652)

———, The Complaint of Christmas and the Teares of Twelfetyde, (London, James Boler, 1631)

Thorn, Romaine Joseph, Christmas, A Poem (Bristol, John Reed, 1795)

Tille, Alexander, Yule and Christmas: Their Place in the Germanic Year (London, David Nutt, 1899)

‘Timothy Silence’, The Foundling Hospital for Wit . . . (London, W. Webb, 1748)

Tipper, Kathleen, A Woman in Wartime London: The Diary of Kathleen Tipper, 1941–1945, ed. Patricia and Robert Malcolmson ([n.p.], London Record Society, 2006)

Tittle, William, ed., Colonial Holidays, Being a Collection of Contemporary Accounts of Holiday Celebrations in Colonial Times ([1910], Miami, HardPress, [n.d.])

Udal, J. S., ‘Christmas Mummers in Dorsetshire’, Folk-lore Record, vol. 3, no. 1, 1880, pp. 87–116

[Vizetelly, Henry, ed.], Christmas with the Poets: A Collection of Songs, Carols, and Descriptive Verses, Relating to the Festival of Christmas . . . (London, David Bogue, 1855)

Walpole, Horace, The Yale Edition of Horace Walpole’s Correspondence, ed. W. S. Lewis, et al. (London, Oxford University Press, 1937–83)

[Ward, Edward], Wealthy Shop-keeper: or, The Charitable Citizen. A Poem (London, [n.p.], 1700)

Washington, Martha, Martha Washington’s Booke of Cookery . . . , transcribed by Karen Hess (New York, Columbia University Press, 1981)

Weaver, Mary A., ed., The Sir Roger de Coverley Papers, from the Spectator (Boston, Houghton Mi in, 1928)

Wells, Roger, ed., Victorian Village: The Diaries of the Reverend John Croker Egerton, Curate and Rector of Burwash, East Sussex, 1857–1888 (Stroud, Alan Sutton, 1992)

Woodforde, Dorothy Heighes, ed., Woodforde Papers and Diaries (London, Peter Davies, 1932)

Woodforde, James, The Diary of James Woodforde (Castle Cary, Parson Woodforde Society, 2002–7)

Wylie, I. A. R., Eight Years in Germany (London, Mills & Boon, 1914)