Secondary Sources

Secondary Sources

Secondary Sources

Date:

Abramitzky, Ran, Liran Einav and Oren Rigbi, ‘Is Hanukkah Responsive to Christmas?’, Economic Journal, vol. 120, no. 545, June 2010, pp. 612–30

Ames, Kenneth L., ed., American Christmas Cards, 1900–1960 (New Haven, Bard Graduate Center, 2011)

Armstrong, Nancy, The Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree (Kennebunkport, Cider Mill Press, 2009)

Armstrong, Neil, Christmas in Nineteenth-century England (Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2010)

———, ‘England and German Christmas Festlichkeit, c.1800–1914’, German History: The Journal of the German History Society, vol. 26, no. 4, 2008, pp. 486–503

Arsenault, Georges, Acadian Christmas Traditions, trs. Sally Ross (Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Acorn Press, 2007)

Atia, Nadia, and Jeremy Davies, eds., special issue: ‘Nostalgia and the Shapes of History’, Memory Studies, vol. 3, no. 3, 2010

Austin, Linda M., Nostalgia in Transition, 1780–1917 (Charlottesville, University of Virginia Press, 2007)

Baker, Margaret, Discovering Christmas Customs and Folklore: A Guide to Seasonal Rites (Princes Risborough, Shire, 1992)

Barber, Mary, and Flora McPherson, Christmas in Canada: The Early Days from Sea to Sea, Spirit of Christmas Past, Spirit of Christmas Present (Toronto, J. M. Dent & Sons, 1959)

Barnett, James H., The American Christmas: A Study in National Character (New York, Macmillan, 1954)

Baur, John E., Christmas on the American Frontier, 1800–1900 ([1961], Detroit, Omnigraphics, 1993)

Belk, Russell, ‘A Child’s Christmas in America: Santa Claus as Deity, Consumption as Religion’, Journal of American Culture, vol. 10, no. 1, 1987, pp. 87–100

———, ‘Materialism and the Modern US Christmas’, Interpretive Consumer Research, vol. 1, no. 1, 2000

——— and Wendy Bryce, ‘Christmas Shopping Scenes: From Modern Miracle to Postmodern Mall’, International Journal of Research in Marketing, vol. 10, no. 3, 1993, pp. 277–96

Bella, Leslie, The Christmas Imperative: Leisure, Family, and Women’s Work (Halifax, Fernwood, 1992)

Bennett, Tony, ‘Christmas and Ideology’, in Popular Culture: Themes and Issues, Block 1, Units 1/2 (Milton Keynes, Open University, 1981)

Billington, Sandra, ‘Butchers and Fishmongers: Their Historical Contribution to London’s Festivity’, Folklore, vol. 101, no. 1, 1990, pp. 97–103

Bingham, Shauna, and Robert E. May, ‘The Time o’ All Times? Masters, Slaves, and Christmas in the Old South’, Journal of the Early Republic, vol. 18, no. 2, 1998, pp. 263–88

Blumin, Stuart M., The Emergence of the Middle Class: Social Experience in the American City, 1760–1900 (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1989)

Bock, E. Wilbur, ‘Symbols in Conflict: O cial versus Folk Religion’, Journal for Scientific Study of Religion, vol. 5, no. 2, 1966, pp. 204–12

Bossard, James H. S., and Eleanor S. Boll, Ritual in Family Living: A Contemporary Study (Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1950)

Bouwers, E. G., ‘Christmas in Germany, a Cultural History’, German History: The Journal of the German History Society, vol. 29, no. 3, 2011, pp. 553–5

Bowler, Gerry, The World Encyclopedia of Christmas (Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 2000)

Boym, Svetlana, The Future of Nostalgia (New York, Basic, 2001)

Breinholst, Willy, Christmas in Scandinavia (Copenhagen, privately printed, [?1967])

Brown, Malcolm, and Shirley Seaton, Christmas Truce (London, Leo Cooper, 1984)

Brunner, Bernd, Inventing the Christmas Tree, trs. Benjamin A. Smith (New Haven, Yale University Press, 2012)

Buday, George, The History of the Christmas Card (London, Spring Books, 1964)

Burke, Peter, and Roy Porter, eds., The Social History of Language (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1987)

Bushaway, Bob, By Rite: Custom, Ceremony and Community in England, 1700–1880 (London, Junction, 1982)

Cadwallader, Jen, ‘Spirits of the Age: Ghost Stories and the Victorian Psyche’, DPhil thesis (Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina, 2009)

Campbell, Colin, The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism (Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1987)

Caplow, Theodore, ‘Christmas Gifts and Kin Networks’, American Sociological Review, vol. 47, no. 3, June 1982

———, ‘Rule Enforcement without Visible Means: Christmas Gift Giving in Middletown’, American Journal of Sociology, vol. 89, no. 6, May 1984, pp. 1306–23

——— et al., All Faithful People: Change and Continuity in Middletown’s Religion (Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1983)

——— et al., Middletown Families: Fifty Years of Change and Continuity (Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1982)

———, Louis Hicks, Ben J. Wattenberg, The First Measured Century: An Illustrated Guide to Trends in America, 1900–2000 (Washington, AEI Press, 2001)

Caputi, Mary, A Kinder, Gentler America: Melancholia and the Mythical 1950s (Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 2005)

Carson, Barbara G., Ambitious Appetites: Dining, Behavior, and Patterns of Consumption in Federal Washington (Washington, American Institute of Architects Press, 1990)

Carson, Cary, Ronald Hoffman and Peter J. Albert, eds., Of Consuming Interests: The Style of Life in the Eighteenth Century (Charlottesville, University Press of Virginia, 1994)

Carson, Jane, Colonial Virginia Cookery (Williamsburg, Colonial Williamsburg, 1968)

Casey, Emma, and Lydia Martens, eds., Gender and Consumption: Domestic Cultures and the Commercialisation of Everyday Life (Aldershot, Ashgate, 2007)

Clarke, Alison, Holiday Seasons: Christmas, New Year and Easter in Nineteenth-century New Zealand (Auckland, Auckland University Press, 2007)

Clery, E. J., The Rise of Supernatural Fiction, 1762–1800 (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1995)

Cohen, Henning, and Tristram Potter Cohen, eds., The Folklore of American Holidays (Detroit, Gale, 1999)

Connelly, Mark, Christmas: A History (London, I. B. Tauris, 2012)

———, ed., Christmas at the Movies: Images of Christmas in American, British and European Cinema (London, I. B. Tauris, 2000)

Connerton, Paul, How Societies Remember (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1989)

Cox, Michael, and R. A. Gilbert, eds., The Oxford Book of Victorian Ghost Stories (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2003)

Crossick, Geoffrey, and Serge Jaumain, eds., Cathedrals of Consumption: The European Department Store, 1850–1938 (Aldershot, Ashgate, 1999)

Curry, William M., Jr., ‘Appreciating the Unappreciated: Washington Irving’s Influence on Charles Dickens’, PhD thesis (Lafayette, University of Southwestern Louisiana, 1996)

Cusack, Frank, ed., The Australian Christmas (Melbourne, Heinemann, 1966)

Davis, Paul, The Lives and Times of Ebenezer Scrooge (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1990)

Davis, Susan G., ‘“Making night hideous”: Christmas Revelry and Public Order in Nineteenth-century Philadelphia’, American Quarterly, vol. 34, no. 2, 1982, pp. 185–99

———, Parades and Power: Street Theatre in Nineteenth-century Philadelphia (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1988)

Dirks, Robert, The Black Saturnalia: Conflict and its Ritual Expression on British West Indian Slave Plantations (Gainesville, University of Florida Press, 1987)

Douglas, Ann, The Feminization of American Culture (Basingstoke, Papermac, 1996)

Dublin, Thomas, ed., Immigrant Voices: New Lives in America, 1773–2000 (Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 2014)

Durston, Chris, ‘Lords of Misrule: The Puritan War on Christmas, 1642–60’, History Today, vol. 35, no. 12, December 1985, pp. 7–14

Eden, Trudy, The Early American Table: Food and Society in the New World (DeKalb, Northern Illinois University Press, 2010)

Edworthy, Niall, The Curious World of Christmas: Celebrating All that is Weird, Wonderful and Festive (London, Doubleday, 2007)

Eliot, Simon, Some Patterns and Trends in British Publishing, 1800–1919 (London, Bibliographical Society, 1994)

Ettlinger, L. D., and R. G. Holloway, Compliments of the Season (London, Penguin, 1947)

Etzioni, Amitai, and Jared Bloom, eds., We Are What We Celebrate: Understanding Holidays and Rituals (New York, New York University Press, 2004)

Ferro, Marco, Malcolm Brown, Rémy Cazals and Olaf Mueller, Meetings in No Man’s Land: Christmas 1914 and Fraternization in the Great War, trs. Helen McPhail (London, Constable and Robinson, 2007)

Fischer, David Hackett, Albion’s Seed: Four British Folkways in America (New York, Oxford University Press, 1989)

Fischer, Eileen, and Stephen J. Arnold, ‘More than a Labor of Love: Gender Roles and Christmas Gift Shopping’, Journal of Consumer Research vol. 17, no. 3, 1990, pp. 333–45

Fisher, Jennifer, ‘Nutcracker’ Nation: How an Old World Ballet Became a Christmas Tradition in the New World (New Haven, Yale University Press, 2003)

Fisher, Judith L., and Stephen Watt, eds., When They Weren’t Doing Shakespeare: Essays on Nineteenth-century British and American Theatre (Athens, University of Georgia Press, 1989)

Fleming, Tom, Voices Out of the Air: The Royal Christmas Broadcasts, 1932–1981 (London, Heinemann, 1981)

Fogel, Edwin M., ‘Twelvetide’, in The Pennsylvania German Folklore Society, vol. 6 (Allentown, Pennsylvania German Folklore Society, 1941)

Forbes, Bruce David, Christmas: A Candid History (Berkeley, University of California Press, 2007)

——— and Jeffrey Mahan, eds., Religion and Popular Culture in America (rev. ed., Berkeley, University of California Press, 2005)

Friedrich, Karin, ed., Festive Culture in Germany and Europe from the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Century (Lewiston, NY, Edwin Mellen, 2000)

Frodsham, Paul, From Stonehenge to Santa Claus: The Evolution of Christmas (Stroud, History Press, 2008)

Frow, Gerald, Oh Yes it is: A History of Pantomime (London, BBC, 1985)

Frykman, Jonas, and Orvar Löfgren, Culture Builders: A Historical Anthropology of Middle-Class Life, trs. Alan Crozier (New Brunswick, NJ, Rutgers University Press, 1987)

Gajek, Esther, ‘Christmas Under the Third Reich’, Anthropology Today, vol. 6, no. 4, August 1990, pp. 3–9

Ganaway, Bryan, Toys, Consumption and Middle-Class Childhood in Imperial Germany, 1871–1918 (New York, Peter Lang, 2009)

Gannon, Martin J., and Rajnandini Pillai, Understanding Global Cultures: Metaphorical Journeys Through 29 Nations . . . (Los Angeles, Sage, 2010)

Gay, Kathlyn, African-American Holidays, Festivals, and Celebrations: The History, Customs, and Symbols Associated with Religious and Secular Events (Detroit, Omnigraphics, 2007)

Genovese, Eugene D., Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made (London, André Deutsch, 1975)

Gilbert, James, et al., eds., The Mythmaking Frame of Mind: Social Imagination and American Culture (Belmont, CA, Wadsworth, 1993)

Gill, Harold B., Jr., ‘Christmas Trees, the Confederacy, and Colonial Williamsburg’, Colonial Williamsburg Journal, 2005, click here:

Gillis, John R., ‘Ritualization of Middle Class Family Life in Nineteenth Century Britain’, International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society, vol. 3, no. 2, 1989, pp. 213–35

———, A World of Their Own Making: Myth, Ritual, and the Quest for Family Values (New York, Basic, 1996)

Glassie, Henry, All Silver and No Brass: An Irish Christmas Mumming (Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1975)

Golby, J. M., The Civilisation of the Crowd: Popular Culture in England, 1750–1900 (Stroud, Sutton, 1999)

———, ‘A History of Christmas’, Popular Culture: Themes and Issues (1981, Milton Keynes, Open University, Block 1, Units 1/2)

——— and A.W. Purdue, The Making of the Modern Christmas (Stroud, Sutton, 2000)

Gopnik, Adam, ‘The Man Who Invented Santa Claus’, New Yorker, 15 December 1997, pp. 84–102

Goulding, Christina, ‘Romancing the Past: Heritage Visiting and the Nostalgic Consumer’, Psychology and Marketing, vol. 18, no. 6, 2001, pp. 565–92

Gray, Nada, Holidays: Victorian Women Celebrate in Pennsylvania
(‘An Oral Traditions Project’, University Park, Pennsylvania State University Press, 1983)

Greene, Richard Leighton, The Early English Carols (2nd ed., Oxford, Clarendon, 1977)

Guida, Fred, A Christmas Carol and its Adaptations: A Critical Examination of Dickens’s Story and its Productions on Screen and Television (Jefferson, NC, McFarland & Co., 2000)

Halpert, Herbert, and G. M. Story, eds., Christmas Mumming in Newfoundland ([n.p.], Memorial University of Newfoundland, by University of Toronto Press, 1969)

Hamlin, David, ‘The Structures of Toy Consumption: Bourgeois Domesticity and the Demand for Toys in Nineteenth-century Germany’, Journal of Social History, vol. 36, no. 4, 2003, pp. 857–69

Hancock, Philip, and Alf Rehn, eds., Organization, special Christmas issue, vol. 18, no. 6, 2011

Hawkins, Paul, Bad Santas, and Other Creepy Christmas Characters (London, Simon & Schuster, 2013)

Heal, Felicity, Hospitality in Early Modern England (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1990)

Henisch, Bridget Ann, Cakes and Characters, An English Christmas Tradition (London, Prospect, 1984)

Hirschman, Elizabeth C., ed., Interpretive Consumer Research (Provo, Association for Consumer Research, 1989)

Hirsh, John C., ed., Medieval Lyric: Middle English Lyrics, Ballads, and Carols (Oxford, Blackwell, 2005)

Hitchcock, Tim, ‘Begging on the Streets of Eighteenth-century London’, Journal of British Studies, vol. 44, no. 3, 2005, pp. 478–98

Hobsbawm, Eric, and Terence Ranger, eds., The Invention of Tradition (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1983)

Hollows, Joanne, Domestic Culture (Maidenhead, Open University/McGraw Hill, 2008)

Hopley, Claire, The History of Christmas Food and Feasts (Barnsley, Remember When, 2009)

Hornung, Clarence P., ed., An Old-Fashioned Christmas in Illustration and Decoration (New York, Dover, 1970)

Houlbrooke, Ralph, ed., James VI and I: Ideas, Authority and Government (Aldershot, Ashgate, 2006)

Huelin, Rev. Gordon, ‘Christmas in the City’, Guildhall Studies in London History, vol. 3, no. 3, 1978, pp. 164–74

Humphrey, Theodore C., and Lin T. Humphrey, eds., ‘We Gather Together’: Food and Festival in American Life (Ann Arbor, UMI Research Press, 1988)

Hutton, Ronald, The Rise and Fall of Merry England: The Ritual Year, 1400–1700 (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1994)

———, The Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1996)

———, Witches, Druids and King Arthur (London, Hambledon, 2003)

Huxley, Aldous, The Olive Tree and Other Essays (London, Chatto & Windus, 1936)

Jezierski, John Vincent, Enterprising Images: The Goodridge Brothers, African American Photographers, 1847–1922 (Detroit, Wayne State University Press, 2000)

Johnes, Martin, Christmas and the British: A Modern History (London, Bloomsbury Academic, 2016)

Jones, Charles W., ‘Knickerbocker Santa Claus’, New-York Historical Society Quarterly, vol. 38, no. 4, 1954, pp. 357–83

———, Saint Nicholas of Myra, Bari, and Manhattan: Biography of a Legend (Chicago, Chicago University Press, 1978)

Jones, E. Willis, The Santa Claus Book (New York, Walker Books, 1976)

Keyte, Hugh, and Andrew Parrott, eds., The New Oxford Book of Carols (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1992)

Kidd, Alan, and David Nicholls, eds., Gender, Civic Culture and Consumerism: Middle-Class Identity in Britain, 1800–1940 (Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1999)

Kimura, Junko, and Russell W. Belk, ‘Christmas in Japan: Globalization Versus Localization’, Consumption, Markets and Culture, vol. 8, no. 3, 2005, pp. 325–38

Kingery, Emily A., ‘A Christmas Canon: Literary Influence and the Anthological Motive’, PhD thesis (De Kalb, Northern Illinois University, 2013)

Lalumia, Christine, ‘Scrooge and Albert: Christmas in the 1840s’, History Today, vol. 51, no. 12, 2001, pp. 23–31

Lankford, Ronald D., Jr., Sleigh Rides, Jingle Bells and Silent Nights: A Cultural History of American Christmas Songs (Gainesville, University Press of Florida, 2013)

Leach, Helen, Mary Brown and Raelene Inglis, The Twelve Cakes of Christmas: An Evolutionary History, with Recipes (Dunedin, NZ, Otago, 2011)

Leach, William, Land of Desire: Merchants, Power, and the Rise of a New American Culture (New York, Pantheon, 1993)

Leonardo, Micaela di, ‘The Female World of Cards and Holidays: Women, Families, and the Work of Kinship’, Signs, vol. 12, Spring 1987, pp. 440–53

Lixfeld, Hannjost, Folklore and Fascism: The Reich Institute for German Volkskunde, trs. James R. Dow (Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1994)

Lizardi, Ryan, Mediated Nostalgia: Individual Memory and Contemporary Mass Media (Lanham, MD, Lexington Books, 2015)

Louis, J. C., and Harvey Z. Yazijian, The Cola Wars (New York, Everest House, 1980)

Lowe, Scott C., Christmas Philosophy for Everyone: Better than a Lump of Coal (Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010)

Lüschen, Günther, et al., ‘Family, Ritual and Secularization: A Cross-National Study Conducted in Bulgaria, Finland, Germany and Ireland’, Social Compass, vol. 19, 1972,
pp. 519–36

MacFarlane, Harold, ‘What the Railways Owe to Charles Dickens’, The Railway Magazine, vol. 30, January–June 1912, pp. 139–44

McGreevy, Patrick, ‘Place in the American Christmas’, Geographical Review, vol. 80, no. 1, 1990, pp. 32–42

McKechnie, Sally, and Caroline Tynan, ‘Social Meanings in Christmas Consumption: An Exploratory Study of UK Celebrants’ Consumption Rituals’, Journal of Consumer Behaviour, vol. 5, no. 2, 2006, pp. 130–44

Malcolmson, Robert W., Popular Recreations in English Society, 1700–1850 (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1973)

Manners, Robert A., ed., Process and Pattern in Culture: Essays in Honor of Julian H. Steward (New Brunswick, NJ, AldineTransaction, 2007)

Marcus, Leah S., The Politics of Mirth: Jonson, Herrick, Milton, Marvell, and the Defense of Old Holiday Pastimes (Chicago, Chicago University Press, 1986)

Marling, Karal Ann, Merry Christmas!: Celebrating America’s Greatest Holiday (Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 2000)

Miller, Daniel, ed., Home Possessions: Material Culture Behind Closed Doors (Oxford, Berg, 2001)

———, Unwrapping Christmas (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1993)

Moore, Tara, Victorian Christmas in Print (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009)

Munsey, Cecil, The Illustrated Guide to the Collectibles of Coca-Cola (New York, Hawthorn Books, 1972)

Nettel, Reginald, ed., Carols, 1400–1950 (Bedford, Gordon Fraser, 1956)

Niemeyer, Katharina, ed., Media and Nostalgia: Yearning for the Past, Present and Future (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014)

Nissenbaum, Stephen, The Battle for Christmas (New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1996)

Nitzsche, George E., ‘The Christmas Putz of the Pennsylvania Germans’, in The Pennsylvania German Folklore Society, vol. 6 (Allentown, Pennsylvania German Folklore Society, 1941), pp. 3–28

Nothaft, Carl Philipp Emanuel, ‘From Sukkot to Saturnalia: The Attack on Christmas in Sixteenth-century Chronological Scholarship’, Journal of the History of Ideas, vol. 72, no. 4, 2011, pp. 503–22

Otnes, Cele, and Richard F. Beltramini, eds., Gift Giving: A Research Anthology (Bowling Green, OH, Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1996)

Paine, Albert Bigelow, Thomas Nast: His Period and His Pictures (New York, Harper & Brothers, 1904)

Parker, David, Christmas and Charles Dickens (Brooklyn, AMS Press, 2005)

Pencak, William, Matthew Dennis and Simon P. Newman, eds., Riot and Revelry in Early America (University Park, Pennsylvania State University Press, 2002)

Penfold, Steve, ‘The Eaton’s Santa Claus Parade and the Making of a Metropolitan Spectacle, 1905–1982’, Histoire Sociale / Social History, vol. 44, no. 87, 2011, pp. 1–28

Perry, Joe, Christmas in Germany: A Cultural History (Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 2010)

Phillips, Leona Rasmussen, Christmas: An Annotated Bibliography (New York, Gordon Press, 1978)

Picard, David, and Mike Robinson, eds., Festivals, Tourism and Social Change: Remaking Worlds (Clevedon, Channel View Publications, 2006)

Pimlott, J. A. R., The Englishman’s Christmas: A Social History (Hassocks, Harvester Press, 1978)

Piø, Iørn, ‘Christmas Traditions in Scandinavia’, in Custom, Culture and Community in the Later Middle Ages: A Symposium (Odense, Odense University Press, 1994), pp. 57–69

Piott, Steven L., Americans in Dissent: Thirteen Influential Social Critics of the Nineteenth Century (Lanham, MD, Lexington Books, 2014)

Plath, David, ‘The Japanese Popular Christmas: Coping with Modernity’, Journal of American Folklore, vol. 76, no. 302, 1963, pp. 309–17

Pleck, Elizabeth, Celebrating the Family: Ethnicity, Consumer Culture, and Family Rituals (Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 2000)

Prendergast, Neil, ‘American Holidays: A Natural History’, DPhil thesis (Tucson, University of Arizona, 2011)

Preston, Michael J., ‘The British Folk Play: An Elaborated Luck-Visit?’, Western Folklore, vol. 30, no. 1, 1971, pp. 45–58

Ravitz, Abe C., ‘John Pierpont and the Slaves’ Christmas’, Phylon, vol. 21, no. 4, 1960, pp. 383–6

Reagin, Nancy R., Sweeping the German Nation: Domesticity and National Identity in Germany, 1870–1945 (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2007)

Reed, Edward Bliss, ed., Christmas Carols Printed in the Sixteenth Century, including Kele’s Christmas carolles newely Inprynted (Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1932)

Reichard, Harry Hess, ‘The Christmas Poetry of the “Pennsylvania Dutch”’, in The Pennsylvania German Folklore Society, vol. 6 (Allentown, Pennsylvania German Folklore Society, 1941), pp. 3–28

Restad, Penne L., Christmas in America: A History (New York, Oxford University Press, 1995)

Richards, Jeffrey, Films and British National Identity: From Dickens to Dad’s Army (Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1997)

Richards, Katharine Lambert, How Christmas Came to the Sunday- schools: The Observance of Christmas in the Protestant Church Schools of the United States. An Historical Study (New York, Dodd, Mead, 1934)

Robertson, Margaret, ‘The Symbolism of Christmas Mummering in Newfoundland’, Folklore, vol. 93, no. 2, 1982, pp. 176–80

Rosenzweig, Roy, and David Thelen, The Presence of the Past: Popular Uses of History in American Life (New York, Columbia University Press, 1998)

Roud, Steve, The English Year: A Month-by-Month Guide to the Nation’s Customs and Festivals (London, Penguin, 2006)

Routley, Erik, The English Carol (London, Herbert Jenkins, 1958)

Rowell, Geoffrey, ‘Dickens and the Construction of Christmas’, History Today, vol. 43, no. 12, December 1993, pp. 17–24

Salokorpi, Sinikka, and Ritva Lehmusoksa, Yuletide Finland, trs. Tim Ste a (Helsinki, Otava, 1998)

Samuelson, Sue, Christmas, An Annotated Bibliography (New York, Garland, 1982)

Santino, Jack, All Around the Year: Holidays and Celebrations in American Life (Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1994)

———, ed., Halloween, and Other Festivals of Death and Life (Knoxville, University of Tennessee Press, 1994)

Scannell, Paddy, and David Cardi , A Social History of British Broadcasting, vol. 1: 1922–1939, Serving the Nation (Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1991)

Schiffer, Margaret, Christmas Ornaments: A Festive Study (Atglen, PA, Schiffer, 1995)

Schmidt, Leigh Eric, Consumer Rites: The Buying and Selling of American Holidays (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1995)

Shaw, George Bernard, ‘The Abolition of Christmas’, The Shavian, vol. 3, no. 8, 1967, pp. 7–9

———, Our Theatres in the Nineties (London, Constable and Co., 1932)

Shepard, Leslie, John Pitts: Ballad Printer of Seven Dials, London, 1765–1844 (London, Private Libraries Association, 1969)

Shoemaker, Alfred L., Christmas in Pennsylvania: A Folk-Cultural Study ([1959], Mechanicsburg, PA, Stackpole Books, 2009)

Siefker, Phyllis, Santa Claus, Last of the Wild Men: The Origins and Evolution of Saint Nicholas, Spanning 50,000 Years (Jefferson, NC, McFarland & Co., 1997)

Silverthorne, Elizabeth, Christmas in Texas (College Station, Texas A&M University Press, 1990)

Simpson, Jacqueline, and S. Roud, A Dictionary of English Folklore (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2000)

Skårdal, Dorothy Burton, The Divided Heart: Scandinavian Immigrant Experience through Literary Sources (Oslo, Universitetsforlaget, 1974)

Snyder, Philip, The Christmas Tree Book: The History of the Christmas Tree and Antique Christmas Tree Ornaments (New York, Viking, 1977)

Stern, Sydney Ladensohn, and Ted Schoenhaus, Toyland: The High-Stakes Game of the Toy Industry (Chicago, Contemporary Books, 1990)

Stokker, Kathleen, ‘Julebukk: Christmas Masquerading in Norwegian America’, Norwegian-American Essays, ed. Knut Djupedal et al., Norwegian-American Studies Seminar of the Norwegian-American Historical Association (Oslo, Norwegian Emigrant Museum, 1993)

———, Keeping Christmas: Yuletide Traditions in Norway and the New Land (St Paul, Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2000)

Storey, John, Inventing Popular Culture: From Folklore to Globalization (Malden, MA, Blackwell, 2003)

Strasser, Susan, ed., Commodifying Everything: Relationships of the Market (New York, Routledge, 2003)

Street, E., ‘The Year Turns; Christmas Eve Illuminates Finland’s Darkest Days’, The World and I, vol. 13, no. 12, 1998, pp. 184–89

Studwell, William E., Christmas Carols: A Reference Guide (New York, Garland, 1985)

——— and Dorothy E. Jones, Publishing Glad Tidings: Essays on Christmas Music (New York, Haworth Press, 1998)

Sutton-Smith, Brian, Toys as Culture (New York, Gardner, 1986)

Svehla, Gary J., and Susan Svehla, It’s Christmas Time at the Movies (Baltimore, Midnight Marquee Press, 1998)

Thomas, Nancy Smith, Moravian Christmas in the South (Winston-Salem, NC, Old Salem Museums and Gardens, 2007)

Thurner-Uhle, Michaela, The Representation and Function of Christmas in English Literature of the 19th and 20th Centuries (Hamburg, Verlag Dr Kovač, 2009)

Tryckare, Tre, Christmas in Sweden 100 Years Ago, trs. Anne Bibby (Goteborg, n.p., 1965)

———, Swedish Christmas, trs. Yvonne Aboav-Elmquist, et al. (1955, [n.p.], 1955)

Tufte, Virginia, and Barbara Myerho , eds., Changing Images of the Family (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1979)

Twitchell, James B., Adcult USA: The Triumph of Advertising in American Culture (New York, Columbia University Press, 1996)

Tynan, Caroline, and Sally McKechnie, ‘Sacralising the Profane: Creating Meaning with Christmas Consumption in the UK’, European Advances in Consumer Research, eds. Karin M. Ekström and Helene Brembeck, EACR 2005, Göteborg, Sweden, 2005, vol. 7, pp. 182–8

Waits, William B., The Modern Christmas in America: A Cultural History of Gift Giving (New York, New York University Press, 1994)

Waldfogel, Joel, ‘The Deadweight Loss of Christmas’, American Economic Review, vol. 83, no. 5, 1993, pp. 1328–36

Watson, Erica, ‘America’s Christmas Treasures: Post-war Consumerism, Jewish Identity, and the Secular Christmas Song’, MA thesis (Long Beach, California State University, 2010)

Weightman, Gavin, and Steve Humphries, Christmas Past (London, Sidgwick and Jackson, 1987)

Weintraub, Stanley, Silent Night: The Story of the World War I Christmas Truce (New York, Free Press, 2001)

Welzer, Harald, ‘Re-narrations: How Pasts Change in Controversial Rememberings’, Memory Studies, vol. 3, no. 1, 2010, pp. 5–17

Wertheimer, Jack, ed., The Uses of Tradition: Jewish Continuity in the Modern Era (New York, Jewish Theological Seminary/ Harvard University Press, 1992)

Whiteley, Sheila, ed., Christmas, Ideology and Popular Culture (Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 2008)

Williams, Jay G., Thomas Nast in History: American’s Greatest Nineteenth Century Cartoonist (Lewiston, NY, Edwin Mellen, 2012)

Wright, A. R., British Calendar Customs: England, vol. 3: Fixed Festivals, ed. T. E. Lones (London, William Glaisher, 1940)